These designators are taken from ACMA radio registrations and manufacturers' data sheets.

Analogue voice

  • 3K00J3E SSB Voice
  • 6K00A3E DSB AM Voice (Aviation, Marine)
  • 10K1F3E FM Voice, 12.5 kHz bandwidth
  • 11K0F3E FM Voice, 12.5 kHz bandwidth
  • 14K0F3E FM Voice, 20 kHz bandwidth
  • 16K0F3E FM Voice, 25 kHz bandwidth (4 kHz deviation)

Digital voice

  • 3K00J2D Codan Envoy LRDR Digital Voice
  • 4K00F1E NXDN (6.25 kHz) Digital Voice
  • 5K76G1E P25 Phase II CQPSK (6.25 kHz slot)
  • 7K60FXE DMR Digital Voice (TDMA 2 slot)
  • 8K10F1E P25 Phase I C4FM Voice (12.5 kHz slot)
  • 8K10F1W P25 Phase II H-CPM Voice
  • 8K30F1E NXDN/IDAS (12.5 kHz) Digital Voice

Mixed content

  • 6K25W7W D-STAR Voice+Data (also 6K25F7W)
  • 7K60FXW DMR Digital Voice+Data (TDMA 2 slot)
  • 10K1F9W P25 Voice+Data
  • 25K0D7W TETRA Voice+Data

Now that 2016 has come to an end I thought that it would be interesting to look at trends and changes in the way electricity was generated around the National Electricity Market. There have been a few significant events in the past twelve months in the electricity sector.

If you have suggestions or requests for other visualisations please let me know (via the contact page). I have 5-min SCADA data for each generator, so there is no shortage of information available.

New South Wales

  • Mostly coal and interconnector imports from Queensland (black coal) and Victoria (brown coal).
  • New solar PV stations are a good thing, but their output is lost in the noise compared to coal and interconnector imports.


  • Interconnector to NSW flows south most of the time.
  • Some renewables, but insignificant compared to the coal and gas.
  • Does not show the rooftop PV contribution to load---this is the nett generation required.

South Australia

  • Coal-fired generation ceased in May. Gas generation (thermal and gas turbine) is now the only synchronous generation in service.
  • Wind power is a significant part of the state's energy mix.
  • The interconnectors between SA and Victoria generally flow west, increasing the carbon intensity.


  • Significant gas generation needed early in the year while Basslink was out of service.
  • Basslink has generally flowed north, taking hydro power to the mainland. The interconnector does flow south at times of low hydro output, providing the backup that Tasmania needs (but from brown coal).
  • Hydro generators provide a great synchronous reference, so capacity for extra wind is high.


  • Even with imports from Tasmania, Victoria is a net exporter (to SA and NSW). Brown coal is cheap, and will generally displace gas and black coal.
  • Wind and hydro are not insignificant, but are dominated by coal generation.

NEM daily generation