Ingram, David, Campbell, Duncan, Schaub, Pascal, & Ledwich, Gerard (2011) Test and evaluation system for multi-protocol sampled value protection schemes. In Doorman, G (Ed.) Proceedings of the IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech 2011. IEEE Power Engineering Society, USB/IEEE Xplore, pp. 1-7.
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Proposed transmission smart grids will use a digital platform for the automation of substations operating at voltage levels of 110 kV and above. The IEC 61850 series of standards, released in parts over the last ten years, provide a specification for substation communications networks and systems. These standards, along with IEEE Std 1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol version 2 (PTPv2) for precision timing, are recommended by the both IEC Smart Grid Strategy Group and the NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards for substation automation. IEC 61850-8-1 and IEC 61850-9-2 provide an inter-operable solution to support multi-vendor digital process bus solutions, allowing for the removal of potentially lethal voltages and damaging currents from substation control rooms, a reduction in the amount of cabling required in substations, and facilitates the adoption of non-conventional instrument transformers (NCITs). IEC 61850, PTPv2 and Ethernet are three complementary protocol families that together define the future of sampled value digital process connections for smart substation automation. This paper describes a specific test and evaluation system that uses real time simulation, protection relays, PTPv2 time clocks and artificial network impairment that is being used to investigate technical impediments to the adoption of SV process bus systems by transmission utilities. Knowing the limits of a digital process bus, especially when sampled values and NCITs are included, will enable utilities to make informed decisions regarding the adoption of this technology.