Ingram, David, Schaub, Pascal, Taylor, Richard, & Campbell, Duncan (2014) System-level tests of transformer differential protection using an IEC 61850 process bus. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 29(3), pp. 1382-1389.
(Hosted at QUT ePrints)
The IEC 61850 family of standards for substation communication systems were released in the early 2000s, and include IEC 61850-8-1 and IEC 61850-9-2 that enable Ethernet to be used for process-level connections between transmission substation switchyards and control rooms. This paper presents an investigation of process bus protection performance, as the in-service behavior of multi-function process buses is largely unknown. An experimental approach was adopted that used a Real Time Digital Simulator and 'live' substation automation devices. The effect of sampling synchronization error and network traffic on transformer differential protection performance was assessed and compared to conventional hard-wired connections. Ethernet was used for all sampled value measurements, circuit breaker tripping, transformer tap-changer position reports and Precision Time Protocol synchronization of sampled value merging unit sampling. Test results showed that the protection relay under investigation operated correctly with process bus network traffic approaching 100% capacity. The protection system was not adversely affected by synchronizing errors significantly larger than the standards permit, suggesting these requirements may be overly conservative. This 'closed loop' approach, using substation automation hardware, validated the operation of protection relays under extreme conditions. Digital connections using a single shared Ethernet network outperformed conventional hard-wired solutions